chiropractic and headaches

Headaches Helped by Chiropractic Says Research

In the September 2001 issue of the Journal of Manipulative and Physio logical Therapeutics was a report on the effectiveness of chiropractic care, specifically labeled “SMT,” for patients with chronic headaches. The data for this report was gathered from nine trials involving 683 patients with chronic headaches.

In the study, chiropractic adjustments (termed SMT) were compared to massage and medications for short term relief of up to six weeks after a month of care. Long term health benefits were not addressed. Results showed the chiropractic group did better than the message group. The group that received medication also showed relief, however, the rate of side effects for the medication group was considerably higher then the chiropractic group. This difference gave a decidedly large advantage to chiropractic over the use of medications.

According to the report, the financial cost of headaches is substantial, with billions of dollars spent annually for lost productivity and treatment. The study also notes medical practitioners have commonly treated people affected with headaches; but recently, higher numbers are turning to alternative therapies for relief. A recent study from Harvard University by Dr. Eisenberg reported one of the most common alternative practitioners sought out for the treatment of headaches was the chiropractor. This study confirms what most chiropractors and their patients already know, that chiropractic is one of the most effective avenues of health for headache sufferers.

Vectored upper cervical manipulation for chronic sleep bruxism, headache and cervical spine pain in a child. Knutsson, G.J. Manipulative Physio Ther Vol 26 No. 6 July/ August 2003.

This is the case of a six-year-old who had chronic sleep bruxism (causing abnormal tooth wear), morning headaches, and cervial spine (neck) pain.

Adjustments to the upper cervical spine were given using the atlas transverse processes the contact point. There was “complete relief” of her chronic symptoms along with elimination of abnormal joint and structural problems.

Occipital headaches stemming from the lateral atlanto-axial (C1-2) joint. Aprill C, Axinn MJ, Bogduk N. Cephalalgia 2002 Feb; 22 (1):15-22

The lateral atlanto-axial joints (C1-2) are capable of causing pain in the occiput, but few clinical studies have validated this source of occipital headache. Patients presenting with occipital pain underwent diagnostic blocks of their lateral atlanto-axial joints if they demonstrated clinical features presumptively suggestive of a C1-2 origin for their pain. Of 34 patients investigated, 21 obtained complete relief of their headache following diagnostic blocks, indicating that a C1-2 source of occipital pain is not rare. [21/34 = 62%]. The clinical features used to select patients for blocks, however, had a positive predictive value of only 60%.

A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine. Tuchin PJ, Pollard H, Bonello R. Journal of Manipulative and PHysiological Therapeutics Feb. 2000: 23(2), PP.91-5

This was a six month study of 127 migraine sufferers half of whom received diversified chiropractic adjustments. The other half represented the control group. Subjects in the manipulation group demonstrated statistically significant improvement in migraine frequency, headache duration, disability, and medication use. 22% of those undergoing chiropractic care reported more than 90% reduction in migraines after two months. About 50% reported significant improvement in severity of migraine episodes.

Evidence report: behavioral and physical treatments for tension type and cervicogenic headache. McCrocy D and Gray R Duke University. 2001.

This report from Duke University compares the effectiveness of drug and other therapies for the most common type of headache - the cervicogenic headache. The report states chiropractic is more effective for headache (both in frequency and severity) than other soft tissue therapies and is superior to drug therapy, providing markedly superior long-term results.

Encephalgia/ Migraine. Bfshever, H. International Chiropractic Pediatric Newsletter Jan/ Feb 2000.

A ten year-old girl with chronic, severe migraines (6 times a week for the past 3 years) was unable to go to school due to the severity of her condition. She was treated at a Children’s Hospital by a neurologist.

Chiropractic examination revealed VSC at C1/C2. The patient’s headaches improved following her 3rd adjustment (one week) at which time she stopped using Periactin T Syrup (prescribed by her pediatrician). By the third week she was back in school and started dance classes for the first time in 2 years, “and actually began to smile again.” She was leading a normal and healthy life for a child her age by the end of the 5th visit.

The anatomic basis for the effectiveness of chiropractic spinal manipulation in treating headache. Hack, GD Abstracts form the 15th annual upper cervical spine conference Now. 21-22, 1998. CRJ, Vol. VI, No. 1, Spring 1999.

This paper is by the same doctor who led the team who discovered a musculo-ligamentous relationship between the cervical spine (neck) and the dura mater (covering of the brain stem). The author writes:

An increasing body of literature relates headaches to pathology affecting the cervical spine and a number of clinical trails have demonstrated chiropractic spinal manipulation directed at the neck is valuable for managing headache.

Mobilization of the Spine. Grieve GP (1984) Churchill Livingston, London/ New York, 4th edition, 22-23

All those experienced in manipulation can report numerous examples of migrainous haedaches, disequilibrium (vertigo), subjective visual disturbances, feelings of retro-orbital pressure, dysphagia, dysophonia, heaviness of a limb, extra segmental paraesthesia, restriction of respiratory excursion, abdominal nausea, and sciatic pain being relieved by manual or mechanical treatment of the vertebral column.

Unconventional medicine in the United States, Eisenberg, DM et al., NEJM 28 May 1993. Pp 246-252.

Twenty-seven percent of Americans who visit alternative health care providers do so for headache relief.

The efficacy of spinal manipulation, amitriptyline, and the combination of both therapies for prophylaxis of migraine headache. Nelson CF, Bronfort G, Evans R, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological therapeutics, October 1998: Vol. 21, No. 8, pp 511-19.

This study compared the relative effectiveness of treating migraines with chiropractic care, the anti-depressant/ anti-anxiety drug, amitriptyline (brand name Elavil), and a combination of both the drug therapy and chiropractic care.

Patients who received only chiropractic showed significant improvement, on a par with those given the powerful prescription drug (though without the side effects). The headache index, from a diary kept by each patient, showed chiropractic to have reduced the severity and frequency of headaches as well or better than the combined therapy or drug alone at each stage of the study.

Spectrum of pathophysiological disorders in cervicogenic headache and its therapeutic indications. Martelletti P, LaTour D, Giacovazzo M. Journal of the Neuromusculoskeletal System 1995; 3: 182-7.

Patients were diagnosed with cervicogenic headache (headache arising from neck structures) and received chiropractic care. The patients reported improvement.

Chiropractic care of a 13-year-old with headache and neck pain: a case report. Hewitt, EG, Portland, Oregon. Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics. Oct, 1993 Palm Springs, CA. Pub. International Chiropractors Assoc., Arlington, VA.

This report describes a 13 year old female who had suffered from severe headaches and neck pain for five days. Following a series of four chiropractic treatments over a two week period, her headache and neck pain resolved.

Incidence of ponticulus posterior of the atlas in migraine and cervicogenic headache. Wight S, Osborne N, Breen AC. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Jan 1999; vol. 22, no. 1, pp15-20.

There is a common structural variation of the atlas vertebra called ponticulus posticus (also know as foramen arcuale or ‘Kimmerle’s anomaly’). Investigators studied the relationship between this condition and headache symptoms in 895 first-time chiropractic patients. The patients had migraine with aura (clissical migraine), migraine without aura (common migraine), cervicogenic headache, neck pain only, and other problems. The authors found a significant correlation of ponticulus posticus with migraine without aura. They explain how the ponticulus posticus is intimately attached to the atlanto-occipital membrane (where the spine and skull meet), which is directly attached to the dura (the outermost covering of the brain and spinal cord). Any small tension exerted on the dura may result in excruciating head pain of a type experienced in migraine.

A case series of migraine changes following a manipulative therapy trail. Tuchin PJ. Australasian Chiropractic & Osteopathy, Nov. 1997; 66(3), pp. 85-91.

This report discusses four cases of migraine that responded dramatically to chiropractic adjustments. Many self reported symptoms were either eliminated or substantially reduced.

Average frequency of episodes was reduced by 90% with the length of each headache reduced by 38%. Medication use dropped 94%. Other symptoms associated with migraine were reduced including nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia.

Evaluation of the Toftness system of chiropractic adjusting for subjects with chronic back pain,chronic tension headaches, or primary dysmenorrhea. Synder, BJ, Sanders, GE Chiropractic Technique, 1996;8:3-9.

This is the study of 24 subjects with chronic back pain, 19subjects with chronic tension headaches, and 26 subjects with dysmenorrhea who underwent a series of Toftness adjustments or sham interventions. Toftness adjustments had significant clinical benefit, whereas those receiving sham interventions did not improve.

Chronic pediatric migraine-type headache treated by long-term Inderol prior to chiropractic care, a case report. Haney, VL, Colorado Springs, CO. Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics. Oct, 1993 Palm Springs, CA. Pub. International Chiropractors Assoc., Arlington, VA.

An 11-year-old pediatric female had an eight year history of severe migraine-type headaches, and a four year history of 20 mg. intake of Inderol daily. The headaches were still incapacitating the child approximately two times per week, despite medication. The child had been a hit and run vitim at 18 months, with her first ‘known’ headache occurring at about the age of three.

Cervical and thoraco-lumbo-pelvic x-rays revealed cervical hypolordosis, C1/C2 hyperextension subluxation, and pelvic unleaveling. Correction was accomplished using diversified style adjustment. The patient’s initial complaint of severe headaches resolved.

Follow-up x-rays show there had been a decrease in thoracic and lumbar curvatures. She has slowly been weaned from Inderol, and is off all pain medications as well.

The effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of cervicogenic headache. Nilsson N, Christensen HW, Hartvigsen J. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1997; 20:326-330.

This is a randomized controlled trial performed at the University of Odense, Denmark by chiropractors and medical doctors.

Of 53 patients suffering form frequent headaches, 28 received high-velocity, low-amplitude cervical manipulation twice a week for three weeks. The remaining 25 received low-level laser in the upper cervical region and deep friction massage in the lower cervical/ upper thoracic region; also twice a week for three weeks.

The use of analgesics decreased by 36% in the manipulation group, and was unchanged in the soft-tissue group; this difference was statistically significant. Additionally, the number of headache hours per day decreased by 69% in the manipulation group compared with 37% in the soft-tissue group; this was also statistically significant. Finally, the headache intensity per episode decreased by 36% in the manipulation group, compared to 17% in the soft-tissue group; this was significant.